Entities with Permission and Types
A set of credentials that can be used to connect to and authenticate with SQL Server is known as a login.
Windows Authentication is used when entering the login information for a local Windows user account or an Active Directory domain account. Since the password is a local or domain user password, no password is required when adding these individuals.
Creating a set of credentials unique to the SQL Server instance is done using SQL Server Authentication. For authentication purposes, this necessitates a unique password.
If you want to impose password expiration or demand a password change at the next login, you must select this option. Furthermore, if this option is unchecked, the user won’t be locked out after several failed login attempts. It is advised to leave this checked if your SQL service is accessible to the general public in order to prevent brute-force login attempts via user lockout.
Every SQL connection or session has a default database that it belongs to. In the event that no database is provided during authentication, every Login has a default database. Authentication will fail if the Login doesn’t have access to the Default Database.
A set of rights that can be provided to a login are known as server roles. These permissions apply to all databases on the server and the login’s access to particular server-level functions.
The permissions covered by each role are graphically represented in the image below. The entire diagram is covered by the sysadmin fixed server role because it has access to all permissions whereas the other roles can only access a limited number of them.
Furthermore, the security admin position should be viewed as being identical to the sysadmin role in that it permits the user to grant himself additional permissions.
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